3D refers to 3 dimensional(volume) space. The space is composed of three axes typically called X, Y, and Z. The addition of the Z axis to the 2 dimensions, X and Y axes, is what gives the 3D model depth.
In 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling (or modelling) is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any three-dimensional surface of an object (either inanimate or living) via specialized software. The product is called a 3D model. The depiction of the model in a relasitc way is refered to as rendering.
The process of creating a 3D representation of any surface or object by manipulating polygons, edges, and vertices in simulated 3D space. 3D modeling can be achieved manually with specialized 3D production software that lets an artist create and deform polygonal surfaces, or by scanning real-world objects into a set of data points that can be used to represent the object digitally.
Because the computer model is not a tangible shape in the physical world, the only way to percieve the 3 dimensions is to project the over shape onto a flat 2D plane such as a monitor or printed sheet. This can be illustrated using parallel projection of perspective projection.
3D Modeling is used in a wide range of fields. The following is a short list of various fields with brief examples of each:
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